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Osteoporosis Prevention

Page 3 of 3
Prev | Type V
  • Clinically similar to Type IV.
  • A dense band seen on x rays adjacent to the growth plate of the long bones.
  • Unusually large calluses, called hypertrophic calluses, at the sites of fractures or surgical procedures. (A callus is an area of new bone that is laid down at the fracture site as part of the healing process.)
  • Calcification of the membrane between the radius and ulna (the bones of the forearm). This leads to restriction of forearm rotation.
  • White sclera.
  • Normal teeth.
  • Bone has a “mesh-like” appearance when viewed under the microscope.

Type VI

People with this type of Osteoporosis are moderately to severely affected. They have normal (white or slightly blue) sclera and the teeth are not affected. The alkaline phosphatase (an enzyme linked to bone-forming cell activity) activity level is slightly elevated in Osteoporosis Type VI, and this can be determined by a blood test. Because the clinical features are so similar to other moderate forms of Osteoporosis, a bone biopsy is the only method by which Osteoporosis Type VI can be diagnosed with certainty. The bone from patients with this form has a distinctive “fish-scale” appearance when viewed under the microscope. Eight people with this type of Osteoporosis have been identified.

Inheritance Factors

Most cases of Osteoporosis are caused by a dominant genetic defect. Some children with Osteoporosis inherit the disorder from a parent. Other children are born with Osteoporosis even though there is no family history of the disorder. In these children, the genetic defect occurred as a spontaneous mutation.

Because the defect—whether inherited or due to a spontaneous mutation—is usually dominant, a person with Osteoporosis has a 50 percent chance of passing on the disorder to each of his or her children. Genetic counselors can help people with Osteoporosis and their family members further understand Osteoporosis genetics and the possibility of recurrence, and assist in prenatal diagnosis for those who wish to exercise that option.

Treatment

There is not yet a cure for Osteoporosis. Treatment is directed toward preventing or controlling the symptoms, maximizing independent mobility, and developing optimal bone mass and muscle strength. Care of fractures, extensive surgical and dental procedures, and physical therapy are often recommended for people with Osteoporosis. Use of wheelchairs, braces, and other mobility aids is common, particularly (although not exclusively) among people with more severe types of Osteoporosis.

A surgical procedure called "rodding" is frequently considered for individuals with Osteoporosis. This treatment involves inserting metal rods through the length of the long bones to strengthen them and prevent and/or correct deformities.

Several medications and other treatments are being explored for their potential use to treat Osteoporosis. The Osteoporosis Foundation can provide current information on research studies and experimental treatments for Osteoporosis, as well as information to help individuals decide whether to participate in clinical trials.

People with Osteoporosis are encouraged to exercise as much as possible to promote muscle and bone strength, which can help prevent fractures. Swimming and water therapy are common exercise chOsteoporosisces for people with Osteoporosis, as water allows independent movement with little risk of fracture. For those who are able, walking (with or without mobility aids) is excellent exercise. Individuals with Osteoporosis should consult their physician and/or physical therapist to discuss appropriate and safe exercise.

Children and adults with Osteoporosis will also benefit from maintaining a healthy weight, eating a nutritious diet, and avOsteoporosisding activities such as smoking, excessive alcohol and caffeine consumption, and taking sterOsteoporosisd medications—all of which may deplete bone and exacerbate bone fragility.

Prevention

To reach optimal peak bone mass and continue building new bone tissue as you get older, there are several factors you should consider: Calcium. An inadequate supply of calcium over the lifetime is thought to play a significant role in contributing to the development of osteoporosis. Many published studies show that low calcium intakes appear to be associated with low bone mass, rapid bone loss, and high fracture rates. National nutrition surveys have shown that many people consume less than half the amount of calcium recommended to build and maintain healthy bones. Good sources of calcium include low fat dairy products, such as milk, yogurt, cheese and ice cream; dark green, leafy vegetables, such as broccoli, collard greens, bok choy and spinach; sardines and salmon with bones; tofu; almonds; and foods fortified with calcium, such as orange juice, cereals and breads. Depending upon how much calcium you get each day from food, you may need to take a calcium supplement. Calcium needs change during one's lifetime. The body's demand for calcium is greater during childhood and adolescence, when the skeleton is growing rapidly, and during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Postmenopausal women and older men also need to consume more calcium. This may be caused by inadequate amounts of vitamin D, which is necessary for intestinal absorption of calcium. Also, as you age, your body becomes less efficient at absorbing calcium and other nutrients. Older adults also are more likely to have chronic medical problems and to use medications that may impair calcium absorption.

Recommended Calcium Intakes *

Ages

mg/day

Birth-6 months

210

6 months-1 year

270

1-3

500

4-8

800

9-13

1300

14-18

1300

19-30

1000

31-50

1000

51-70

1200

70 or older

1200

Pregnant or lactating

14 - 18

1300

19 - 50

1000


* National Academy of Sciences (1997)

Prognosis

The prognosis for an individual with Osteoporosis varies greatly depending on the number and severity of symptoms. Despite numerous fractures, restricted activity, and short stature, most adults and children with Osteoporosis lead productive and successful lives.




For more information about Osteogenesis Imperfecta, contact:

Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation
804 West Diamond Avenue, Suite 210
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
(800) 981-BONE (2663) or (301) 947-0083
Fax: (301) 947-0456
E-mail: bonelink@Osteoporosisf.org
Internet: www.Osteoporosisf.org





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